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How effective is schooling in promoting learning (الإنجليزية)

Results of educational research in both developed and developing countries are presented on the issue of schooling effectiveness, and policy implications are discussed. Schooling is not as effective in promoting learning, as measured by achievement tests, as educators had assumed. The significance of traditional factors, such as class size, teacher training, and unit costs per student, has been overestimated. Other factors, including parental behavior, nutrition, personality, and chance are more significant than previously assumed. Two central policy questions arise for planners concerned with poverty and social inequality in developing and developed nations: 1) how to reduce cognitive inequality among individuals; and 2) how to reduce the inequality in the number of years individuals remain in schools. Research has not identified a variant of the existing system that is consistently related to students' educational outcomes, but nothing in the literature proves that current systems cannot be substantially improved to deal with these questions. Suggestions are made for specific areas of deficiency in educational system and for changes to overcome the problems. Educational and demographic data are included. Numerous references.


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  • نوع الوثيقة

    ورقة عمل يعدها موظفو البنك

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  • اسم الوثيقة

    How effective is schooling in promoting learning?

  • كلمة أساسية

    educational research;student outcome;effect on student achievement;Agricultural Research and Development;educational outcome;school resource;cognitive achievement;aims of education;test score;achievement test score;multiple regression analysis;supply of school;school system;years of schooling;allocation of resource;equality of opportunity;Medium of Instruction;level of performance;measure of outcome;highly educated people;interaction between teacher;number of scientists;cognitive skill;reading comprehension;educational process;production function;research result;classroom study;educational practice;class size;individual difference;quantitative research;social institution;research design;educational effectiveness;student body;cognitive ability;educational input;student learning;interaction effect;foreign language;Compensatory Education;research effort;educational intervention;independent variable;empirical analysis;social reform;classroom learning;resource prices;school expenditure;child psychology;Mental health;policy question;science achievement;social demand;education organization;lifetime earnings;european study;future research;social inequality;study objectives;personal development;community characteristic;resource flow;social stability;teaching activity;empirical relationship;research base;educational objective;positive correlation;empirical result;primary concern;selection procedures;educational system;socioeconomic background;small class;school outcome;children's needs;development policy;learning style;internal consistency;school effectiveness;student characteristic;individualized instruction;research materials;central policy;innovative method;functional form;instructional method;international efforts;school achievement;research review;social function;comparative study;learning process;subject matter;cognitive process;abstract reasoning;organizational research;classroom behavior;process research;educational resource;mass education;formal schooling;labor productivity;research expenditure;traditional discipline;schooling process;political science;evaluation study;ministerial meeting;educational expenditure;individual research;government expenditure;significant evidence;low-income group;productivity gain;Education Research;elementary school;certification agency;research activities;educational problem;health research;simulation approach;slow learner;uneducated people;high school;social segregation;poor child;redistributing resource;standard deviation;educational bureaucracy;teacher quality;alternative education;social need;exogenous shock;economic sector;school equipment;social dislocation;innovative teaching;open education;reading score;educational opportunity;Equal Opportunity;student behavior;research activity;national norm;massive increase;statistical technique;outcome measure;relative price;socioeconomic status;teaching style;

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نسخة رسمية من الوثيقة (قد تضم توقيعات، الخ)