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Innovation for productivity growth in Ecuador : unlocking constraints through horizontal and cluster development policies (Vol. 2) : Innovación para el crecimiento de la productividad en Ecuador: eliminando restricciones mediante políticas de desarrollo horizontales y de clúster (الإسبانية)

Over the last decade, Ecuador experienced inclusive growth fueled by a favorable external environment that financed a vast expansion of the public sector. The country is now facing severe external and fiscal challenges due to the significant extended fall in oil prices and the appreciation of the U.S. dollar. Since mid-2014, Ecuador has lost almost half of its merchandise export income due to the decline in oil prices. Oil revenues averaged 13.2 percent of GDP between 2011 and 2014 and one-third of total fiscal revenues. The fall in oil and other commodity prices on global markets has opened broad macroeconomic imbalances and exposed Ecuador's pre-existing vulnerabilities. As a fully dollarized economy with limited savings from the boom years, Ecuador cannot soften adjustment via a nominal depreciation or a drawdown of macroeconomic buffers. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar and the major currency depreciations in neighboring trading partners also place pressures on external competitiveness. Furthermore, access to foreign borrowing has become more limited. Consequently, the burden of the adjustment falls on fiscal and income policies.

الوثيقة أيضا متوفرة بـ  

تفاصيل

  • المؤلف

    Rubalcaba Bermejo,Luis, Slavova,Stefka, Kim,Maria Deborah, Merino De Lucas,Fernando, Franco-Temple,Ernesto, Victor,Jessica Michelle, Ferrer Morera,Gloria

  • تاريخ الوثيقة

    2017/07/21

  • نوع الوثيقة

    ورقة عمل

  • رقم التقرير

    ACS22413

  • مجلد رقم

    2

  • عدد المجلدات

    3

  • البلد

    إكوادور,

  • المنطقة

    أمريكا اللاتينية والبحر الكاريبي,

  • تاريخ الإفصاح

    2017/08/01

  • حالة الافصاح

    Disclosed

  • اسم الوثيقة

    Innovación para el crecimiento de la productividad en Ecuador: eliminando restricciones mediante políticas de desarrollo horizontales y de clúster

  • كلمة أساسية

    information and communication technology;small and medium enterprise;annual average growth rate;barriers to innovation;number of researchers;total manufacturing export;Science and Technology;private sector competitiveness;income due;terms of policy;access to financing;chamber of commerce;information on market;international trade agreement;skilled human resource;intellectual property rights;performance of private;competition policy framework;source of funding;government and business;development over time;number of patents;concept of innovation;Innovation and Productivity;approach to innovation;lack of openness;labor income growth;gaps in productivity;cost of innovation;income growth rate;high oil price;total patent application;labor productivity;technological innovation;business service;innovative company;private investment;manufactured export;process innovation;national innovation;product innovation;national survey;license fee;total trade;international comparator;data availability;productivity gain;industrial sector;innovation input;business enterprise;international benchmarking;economic sector;wood industry;field work;productivity growth;government investment;innovation survey;survey data;innovation performance;coffee bean;innovation output;comparator country;business innovation;market innovation;government spending;private company;business contribution;business finance;business sector;investment climate;financial software;primary production;export market;molecular biology;materials science;oil revenue;fiscal revenue;nominal depreciation;technological content;computer science;trading partner;Innovation Policies;innovation policy;world leaders;merchandise export;researcher productivity;reducing inequality;external competitiveness;regression coefficient;textile sectors;procurement rule;traditional sector;external environment;inclusive growth;qualified worker;published documents;labour force;production base;innovation indicator;export promotion;Higher Education;scientific journal;market structure;firm size;innovation capability;investment conditions;foreign market;positive growth;international study;import regime;long-term disability;manufactured products;environmental aspect;net importer;average share;import side;research system;relative performance;Natural Resources;specialty coffee;oil crisis;industrial service;qualitative information;regulatory issue;global trade;global innovation;composite indicator;successful product;market sophistication;knowledge worker;products export;fostering productivity;enterprise growth;supply side;factor accumulation;trade diversification;business environment;firm performance;niche market;comparative advantage;competitive market;dairy product;software company;knowledge absorption;currency devaluation;price volatility;productivity performance;firm entry;human consumption;Industrial Policies;Industrial Policy;oil production;competitive price;cocoa bean;canned tuna;macroeconomic environment;econometric result;statistical information;applicable law;external borrowing;income policy;Income policies;capital-intensive sector;trade costs;increase productivity;firm productivity;national production;policy statement;economic diversification;fishing industry;Investment strategies;policy priority;professional association;public funding;Job Creation;aggregate data;econometric analysis;coffee industry;correlation matrix;innovation activity;foreign sale;innovation development;data compilation;capital good;Public-Private Dialogue;macroeconomic context;competition issue;administrative support;cluster development;concentration index;subsidiary right;advanced technology;international competition;patent registration;public resource;policy planning;Industrialized countries;industrialized country;scientific institution;software service;knowledge creation;minimum qualification;research institute;innovative environment;social return;Public Spending;qualified personnel;section show;furniture industry;comparable data

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نسخة رسمية من الوثيقة (قد تضم توقيعات، الخ)